How will people and animals be affected if water resources are reduced?

Our water resources face a host of serious threats, all of which are caused primarily by human activity. They include sedimentation, pollution, climate change, deforestation, landscape changes, and urban growth. One of the most serious threats to water resources is the degradation of ecosystems, which often takes place through changes to landscapes such as the clearance of forests, the conversion of natural landscapes to farmland, the growth of cities, the building of roads, and surface mining. Each type of change to a landscape will have its own specific impact, usually directly on natural ecosystems and directly or indirectly on water resources.

What will be the negative effects of thirst on humans?

Thirst Affects Your Heart and Muscles In hypovolemic shock, the heart cannot pump enough blood into the body, which can cause kidney and brain damage, gangrene of the arms and legs, heart attack, damage to other organs, and even death.

How do you think we can develop a solution to this problem?

Using water consciously. educating people about water on water use and imposing bans if necessary.

What are the precautions?

Although it is difficult to integrate the intricacies of ecosystems into traditional assessment and management processes a holistic ecosystem approach to water management is strongly recommended.

Are you ready to live using 30 liters of water for a day?

Water is vital to us.
Maybe tomorrow we won’t find the water we’ve wasted today.
We’re conducting an experiment to understand how valuable water is.
How do we live using 30lt water for a day?
As we do our daily work ,we will learn how much water we use by living.

Water in the future?

In the age we live in, factors such as population growth,
climate change, land use change and poor around the
world lead to rapid changes in access to water

All the visuals and videos belong to the Author – Attribution CC-BY



Science-Mathematics Art Activity:

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This project STEM event is one of the few activities of the European eTwinning project “Discovering STEM in Recycling”, in which Turkey, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Poland and North Macedonia participated. The theme of the project is “We learn stem from Recycling”. First of all, we created a STEM center for our classroom to draw attention to the issue of waste.

I’ve prepared our stem corner for our class to draw my students ‘ attention to recycling.
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Discovering Stem In Nature

Discovering Natural Paint Production

Participants: 3-5 years
Application: March 15-31, 2021
Subject Science: Science and nature activity, Art activity

This project STEM event is one of the few activities of the European eTwinning project “exploring STEM in nature”, in which Turkey, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Poland and North Macedonia participated. The theme of the project is “We learn from plants”.

While starting…

In this project, we aimed to teach kindergarten students to explore nature and to make natural dyes. We started our project in March 2021. Our natural paint making event was held between 15-31 March 2021. Our work with 19 teachers and 250 students has spread to a wide audience. The aim of the activity is to draw the attention of the students to the chemicals in chemical dyes, to understand the damage that chemical dyes cause to our health and to teach what we can do.

In the first place, we created a root center, prepared a root center with materials such as books, puppets, seeds on the subject to reveal young students’ discovery abilities.
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Climate change: evidence of global warming from the space

A virtual laboratory experience…….

The ITET “Rapisardi – Da Vinci” of Caltanissetta joined the European project S.T.E.L.L.E. proposed by PROTOM (see www.protom.com and https://business.esa.int/projects/stelle for futher informatin) as part of the recent “call for ideas” for the presentation of innovative proposals in the educational field. This project was selected by the E.S.A. (European Space Agency) which made its database and satellite images available.

Starting from this data and using the digital platform made available to the schools participating in the project, the students conducted a comparison activity between the data provided by the satellites regarding the average sea surface level and the emerged covered lands in the period between 1993 and 2015. This analysis clearly shows the criticality of the climate change process currently underway on our planet.

The students then deepened the study of the analysis methodologies conducted by the ESA using a virtual laboratory in which they measured the albedo of a scale reproduction of some terrestrial environments (arctic areas, cities, woods, coastal areas, etc.) and studied the correlation between albedo and the temperature of the Earth’s surface.

The work conducted by the students was presented on the occasion of the “STEM Discovery Campaign 2021” event organized on 30.03.2021 at the laboratory of the “Liceo Ilaria Alpi” school in Cesena (see the article: Laboratory simulation of the effects of climate change on Earth.

The global warming problem

Global warming is a complex phenomenon both in its form and in its understanding. It is linked to many causes and many are its consequences; for example, global warming is related to the greenhouse effect and the melting of the Earth’s ice caps is linked to the albedo of the planet, i.e. the Earth’s ability to reflect light. All unreflected light is absorbed by the Earth, contributing to warming. As the ice melts, which has a high albedo, its lowers the planet’s albedo, increasing warming.

Objectives of our students’ study were the:

● Understanding the effect of melting sea ice compared to the melting of glaciers and ice caps.

● Understanding the reflection of light according to the colour of the material.

In order to do it we used:

● Interactive thematic map – Land cover, Sea ice

● A laboratory experience – Albedo of different surfaces.

What is albedo?

The albedo (from the Latin albēdo, “whiteness”, from albus, “white”) of a surface is the fraction of light or, more generally, of incident solar radiation that is reflected in all directions. It therefore indicates the reflecting power of a surface. The exact value of the fraction depends, for the same material, on the wavelength of the radiation considered. If the word albedo is used without further specification, it is meant to refer to visible light. It is measured through an albedometer.


The maximum albedo is 1, when all incident light is reflected. The minimum albedo is 0, when no fraction of the light is reflected. In terms of visible light, the first case is that of a perfectly white object, the other of a perfectly black object. Intermediate values ​​mean intermediate situations. The albedo of fresh snow reaches up to 0.9. Coal has a very low albedo. A slate has an albedo of about 0.15. The albedo can also be measured as a percentage, setting 1 equal to 100%. The Earth has an average albedo of 0.37-0.39, or equivalently 37% -39%.

Albedo is an important concept in climatology, astronomy, and environmental management. The average albedo of the Earth from the upper atmosphere, its planetary albedo, is 30–35% because of cloud cover, but widely varies locally across the surface because of different geological and environmental features.

Earth’s surface albedo is regularly estimated via Earth observation satellite sensors instruments on board.

Earth’s average surface temperature due to its albedo and the greenhouse effect is currently about 15 °C. If Earth were frozen entirely (and hence be more reflective), the average temperature of the planet would drop below −40 °C. If only the continental land masses became covered by glaciers, the mean temperature of the planet would drop to about 0 °C. In contrast, if the entire Earth was covered by water – a so-called ocean planet – the average temperature on the planet would rise to almost 27 °C.

Relationship between albedo and temperature

The greater or lesser reflected incident radiation, and the consequent lower or greater absorption, respectively, can influence the temperature of a body. To give an example, the entire territory of the state of Belgium is considerably warmer than the open French countryside which lies immediately to the southwest, due to the effects of a different albedo.

The coldest regions of the Earth, rich in snow, having little light absorb due to the albedo of the snow, but the relationship between temperature and albedo is actually more evident in tropical regions, because the tropics receive a lot more sunlight.

This phenomenon is evident on a smaller scale. It is common experience that people who wear dark clothing in the summer often feel warmer than those who wear light-colored clothing.

Students calculated the albedo of different simulated enviroments in the virtual laboratory through the measurement of the radiant emittance.

The radiant emittance is the power emitted per unit area. In the case of thermal radiation, it is one of the components of the thermal flux, that is the radiant flux emitted by a non-point but extended source. In the International System of Units it is expressed in watts per square meter (W / m²). Satellite sensors use this physical parameter to calculate the albedo of the different parts of the Earth.

The STELLE project (STELLE – Satellite Technology to Enabling new Learning and Lessons Environment)

In order to better understand the climate phenomena related to the variation of the albedo of the earth’s surface, the students used the results provided by the European Space Agency (ESA) and their graphic representation within the platform created in the STELLE project, accessible through the link https://stelle.scuolabonline.com/login/index.php?id=1&code=Protom.

Thanks to this platform we were able to compare the situation of the surface of the seas and of the land emerged in the period of time between 1992 and 2015. The following images obtained from these analyzes show how actually the process of change of the Earth’s surface is proceeding to ever greater speeds.


Virtual laboratory experience: Reflection capacity of the ground and reflectance phenomena – Albedo of different surfaces 

The experience related to albedo, mainly an observation experience, is presented by the figure below. 


The experience aims to analyse how different materials have different optical properties, in particular how ice, water and soil have different albedoes.

In the virtual laboratory there are different sections of soil, with surfaces of different materials and colours.

A directional light source is simulated by the holographic generator, reflecting the characteristics of sunlight.

In addition, there is an albedometer designed to measure the intensity of the light source and the intensity of the reflected light. The data read by the sensor is displayed on the laboratory monitor.

With the measured light intensity data it is possible to calculate the albedo of particular surfaces.

By changing materials it is possible to experimentally verify that different materials have different Albedo values, marking each observation in the notebook.


By measuring the irradiation irradiated on the different surfaces and the reflected irradiation, the albedo of the different simulated environments was calculated through the ratio of the measured values. The results obtained are showed in the following table.


Robotic Hands


Our STEM activity was realized in the ‘masAl deSTEM’ project on the eTwinning platform. The project is jointly owned by Azerbaijan and Turkey. The project started in November 2020 and will end in May 2021. In our work, we draw attention to daily life problems and make STEM-based engineering designs. Due to the epidemic process, we carry out our activities sometimes face-to-face and sometimes online. In our studies, our students are a STEM study that solves the daily life problem in the fairy tale written by our teams and enables them to think critically. We did our work for Discovery Week in April. You will find all the stages below.


This activity, we have prepared the simplest way to teach each student the measurements of length such as meters and centimeters in a concrete way through a fairy tale. We tried to give these concepts with story. Our students will learn the units of length measurement while designing their model hands.

The following fairy tale with daily life problem is read to children;
As in every summer vacation, Kumsal went to his grandfather living in the village with his family. He and his cousins ​​ran and played in his grandfather’s garden full of huge fruit trees. While playing hide-and-seek, the peaches hanging from the tree he was hiding under whipped his appetite. When the game was over, he called his friends and showed the peaches. No matter how long the children reached out, they could not pick the fruits from the tree. Fruits were too high and their height was not long enough.

The video belongs to and was provided by the Author – Attribution CC-BY


This section, you can have students brainstorm by asking questions that will help them explore. Now I ask you to help the Beach in the fairy tale, and asked questions like the following.

  • What would you do if you were in the place of Kumsal?
  • What are the measurement units of length?
  • How do we move our fingers?  
  • As. You can diversify as well.
  • Ask them to prepare the ingredients.
  •  Encourage designing with materials.


The product is shaped as a result of the answers. At this stage, the students prepare the materials (straw, glue, rope, cardboard) during the distance education with the support of their parents. When they put strings in their hands, seeing the movement of their fingers excites them.
The designed robotic hand can also be used to maintain social distance.

The video belongs to and was provided by the Author – Attribution CC-BY
The photos belong to and were provided by the Author – Attribution CC-BY


Ask your students the following questions after the design is finished;

1-Did your design meet the needs of Kumsal?

2-In which part of your design did you use length measurement units?

3-Is your robotic hand useful in daily life?

4-What else do we measure the lengths with? Etc.

Record the answers to the questions on a piece of paper